In actual fact, I want to tell you without misrepresentation, the whole story of Philhelm, which begins in Alsace (It was still a Germanic country and will become French only in 1678!) in the castle of Lichtenberg, on April 23rd 1616, when the seven-year-old Balthasar, loses the Monogram of his eponymy descendant. This ordinary but nevertheless very serious incident in the distant past will set in motion the artistic calling of one of his descendants, ten generations later!
This contemporary painter, born in Strasbourg in 1943, has exhibited his work (1999 and 2001) at the “International Biennial Event of Contemporary Art of Florence” which awarded him in 1999 the Prize of the City of Florence. So that the ordinary people be completely disorientated, so that it will let the story of the past enter him torpidly, by going back the furthermost possible or else it will never pierce the heart of his paintings, to seek there the secret causes of things.
165x190 cm – 64, 96x74, 80 inches - Acrylic on canvas crowned by a pediment in polychrome wood.
PREAMBLE: A century ago, there were about 100,000 tigers in the world, since the species has melted 97%. 10 years ago, in 2003 there were still 7000. Currently, it would be only 3200 registered cats in their natural habitat! If we do nothing, the tiger has disappeared in less of 10 years! But you can still do, you can choose to join one or more of these associations all present on the Internet: WWF (World Wildlife Fund), Greenpeace, Planet Tiger, Save the Tiger, One Voice with Wildlife SOS Aquaverde, etc.
ART GALLERY / You may already know "The origin of the horse on earth," thanks to my previous painting P168 referenced on my website: www.philhelm.com in the "Art Gallery", here finally, "The origin of the Tiger" In the same spirit, since, as you now know, this table is read like a book that actually exists in the original format 9 cm X 12 cm / 3,54 x 4,72 inches and tells the true origin of the tiger on earth, even if you find somewhat extravagant! And for good reason, since its meaning is both worship and cultural, and has been for perhaps a thousand years, at least for certain, since hundreds of years. Its origin is Tibeto-Burman in a region that is now politically part of China's southwest. It should be noted immediately that the old writing is composed of drawings that only a few surviving Dongba priests are able to read! Many people immediately think of Egyptian hieroglyphics that we might be too quickly compared? But why not do it fast and simple? At first glance when looking for the first time this kind of paintings, one tends to see a children's cartoon? Especially since the treaty is extremely simple and violently colorful! Thence to imagine an ancient and sacred scripture reserved for priests for their many benefits both religious and shamanistic, but even more for those who want to learn more by reading the entire text that follows, it will seem strange if not confused ? But do not worry, I did not invent these myths about the origins have a sacred meaning it would be inappropriate to deny with last current Dongba priests. But back to our table: As you can see, it is surmounted by a pediment carved and polychromed! In fact, this pediment is the representation of the book cover! A central cartouche in red on gold informs us pictographic title of the book, as you already know since it is "The origin of the tiger!" From both sides of this as there are cuts offerings to the gods! Regarding the array itself, it is only the first page of the book, so the beginning of the story that comes out 12 pages, including the cover. As you can see, various signs accompany these drawings; they are all benchmarks for priests in the meaning of words and their pronunciation. One example to understand: Seven geese found in the four rows of the table and none is like, so it is not seven different words, but seven groups of words, which can also change direction, according drawing or a sign that precedes or follows it! It's a little more complicated than that, but enough to understand this amazing and beautiful writing! I confess that although bought in China, an English-dictionary Dongba I am only able to understand half of the signs and still not be sure of their position in the drawing itself! But here below from the drawings and signs alone, the complete translation of the original Tiger, led by a priest Dongba English. I assured the French translation respecting as far as possible, the original meaning, concludes with are not less beautiful than the drawings texts. What do you think?
? The celestial blue dragon is a grandfather for the tiger. ? The cat bald is a grandmother for the tiger. ? The father of the tiger is called Lusigebu, ? His mother called Lusigemu. ? The tiger head is granted by Heaven. ? The tiger skin is submitted by the earth. ? The lungs of the tiger are given to him by the moon. ? The bones of the tiger are granted to him by the stones. ? The flesh of the tiger is given to him by the ground. ? The breath of the tiger is given by the wind. ? The tiger's blood is given by the water. ? The heart of the tiger is given by iron. ? The tiger's eyes are given to him by the stars. ? The Tiger voice is given to him by the blue dragon. ? The claws of tiger given to it by the vulture. ? The gallbladder, the tiger is given to him by the white yak. ? Ears tiger given to it by the jackal. ? There were no scratches on the body of the tiger in the first place. ? These tiger stripes on her cheeks, her face, her ears, her head, her back, her arms, her sides, her waist, legs, tail, and its orbits are drawn as an expression of gratitude raven which saw the remains of the tiger. ? The bands represent prowess. ? Thereafter, the wasp stole a tiger strips. ? This is why it has tiger stripes on the body. ? The horse stole a roaring tiger and neighs like a tiger. ? The frog stole a tiger claw, and webbed feet like a tiger claw. ? The stripes on the front of the tiger look like shiny beads. ? They can make the life of the man. ? The stripes on the face of the tiger look at us with kindness. ? They can give longevity Dongba. ? The stripes on his shoulder look like a treasure. ? They are granted ritual frees the souls of artisans’ longevity of purgatory. ? The stripes on the left should look like a sharp knife. ? They symbolize ingenuity. § The stripes on the side of the right leg is like a mirror. ? They give beauty, wealth and prosperity to the people. ? The stripes on the size similar to the moon: they shine as the moon. ? The bands under the left armpit look like a plowed gold: they are able to open the earth. ? The bands on the left leg look like a golden bell: they are available to Dingbashiluo*. *The Master God Nakhi Dongba and the founder of this religion.
Do you know that at present, there would be 20 people in the world, capable of reading the Dongba and most have more than 75 years! (Some sources say 6O people at most!) What is more important is to know that they are all priests of the Naxi culture and they write (if not draw!) In Dongba. Luckily this writing is taught in schools and that new, especially in County Yulong Naxi in Lijiang City. These students learn to read and write the words "sun", "moon", "pencil" in Naxi. Using Mandarin to speak, read and write in their daily lives, these students of primary school Baishawan discover their own language called Dongba, which literally means "wise man." The Dongba is the only pictographic language still being used in the world. Of the 32 teachers Naxi Baishawan, only three really mastered the Dongba. The Naxi language is an oral language. In the past, only the educated men knew her. To darken a little table, the somewhat tumultuous period of the Cultural Revolution contributed to the almost complete extinction of Dongba. In recent years, local authorities have begun to realize that it was absolutely necessary to keep this beautiful language that is the Dongba. Thus since 2006, primary schools in Yulong County began classes Dongba weekly. Because of its pictorial character, the Dongba also taught art classes. The designs of these ingenious and imaginative children have moved more than one and will be exposed, as it should be, in the most prestigious place of the Middle Kingdom, namely: the National Art Museum in Beijing. This is indeed the ultimate recognition of the language of Dongba. Let's talk writing and its civilizational context so that you can gradually soak up his imagination.
The Dongba writing is writing Chinese Naxi minority. The Naxi are a little over 300,000 people today, and occupied the northern part of Yunnan Province, southwest of China and at the foot of Tibet. They are descendants of a branch of the Qiang minority repulsed by the Chinese to the south where they settle nomads at the time of the Han Dynasty (206 BC. 220 AD. J. -C.). They adopted the local religion, a primitive shamanism based on the worship of nature, and popular beliefs assimilated. Over the following centuries, they received the influence of good monks during their expulsion from Tibet and representatives of Buddhist sects Hats Yellow and Red. They have their own language which belongs to the Yi branch of Tibeto-Burman Austronesian of the Sino-Tibetan phylum. A particular religion is born of these primitive beliefs mixed with Buddhist influence: Dongba religion. Founded, according to legend, by Dongba "shilo" killer demons is a shamanistic and polytheistic religion based on the worship of ancestors and nature. The Naxi believe that all space is inhabited by gods, big or small, spirits of the dead, good or evil spirits and demons that affect life on a daily basis. The link between the supernatural world and men is the Dongba priest or who, through the practice of rituals, soothes or exorcise spirits, gods or demons. Over the many celebrated throughout the year ceremonies, Dongba dance and recite the sacred with the help of handwritten texts. It is, or was, the Dongba in most villages. They gave their son to their knowledge, their traditions, their instruments and manuscripts. These manuscripts, or "classic", are virtually the only media writing Dongba. There are several categories of classic among both existing miles: classic divination, descriptions of sacred dances, medicine or astrology, but contains many myths that tell the origin of all things. An elongated rectangular shape, they are connected through the left side, and cover with the title is beautifully decorated (I am inspired to the pediments of my paintings P168 & P169). As for the inside pages, they read from left to right and top to bottom. They are divided into three or four equal parts in the direction of the length; themselves fragmented uneven boxes punctuate the narrative. The brown paper is of plant origin, and the ink is a mixture of soot recovered from the pots added bile. It is written with a thin piece of bamboo cut. What strikes at first, it is simple, clean and pictographic style of writing Dongba characters. It instantly recalls the Egyptian hieroglyphic writing, and we imagine invented at the same time. But nobody agrees on the date of its creation. Sometimes considered old over a thousand years in the Tang, Song, its origin is usually estimated at just a few centuries (sixteenth or seventeenth or eighteenth?), And, in agreement with the oldest dated manuscripts still preserved. However, the characters of writing symbolize the fauna and flora can be concluded that it was created in the current region Naxi. Prior to the release of Chinese writing, the population was noted in a few simple characters to make his accounts or write short messages. But only Dongba knew all the secrets of writing. Reading a manuscript requires a thorough knowledge of the story. ? Indeed, the number of characters, about 1500 to 2000, does not record all the words, but only the keywords appear in the story, serving as a reminder: this is a mnemonic writing. There is no rule dictating the particular choice of characters or their position in a box. The characters "keys" are selected by the author's own benchmarks. Reading or writing the same story may therefore experience slight variations from one to another Dongba. Writing Dongba pictographic writing is the last still used in the world, but its traditional use is threatened. Indeed, Dongba, only able to decipher and write well, are now less numerous, and the last still alive are mostly elderly (I repeat myself!). A huge translation work was done by the Institute for Research on Dongba culture located in Lijiang, the Naxi capital. Researchers at the Institute helped three Dongba were translated into Chinese the majority of existing scriptures. This work, done in a hurry, took more than ten years and has a real rescue of writing and its texts by direct witnesses of their disappearance. More than 20,000 manuscripts written with Dongba pictographs were identified. They are archived at the Institute of Culture in Lijiang Dongba (Yunnan), as well as in academic libraries in Western Europe and even the United States. Interesting feature about the Naxi minority, the horses of the Lijiang area, (which is an ancient city of Yunnan) were very famous; District Judian formerly was known as the "Land of horses decorated." At the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, the tusi, a Tibetan character, went to Nanjing to offer horses tribute. During the Qing dynasty, the third lunar month, the festival was held dragon king where Naxi, Tibetan, Yi and Bai participated. This festival included horse races, along with horse shows. A large fair with racing horses and mules also held the seventh month. Each year, he was selling more than ten thousand heads. On the place of the Mountain Lion (now People's Square) stood still a great horse race which had the best Tibetan horsemen Bai, Naxi and Yi. These strong and courageous horses called "Lijiang horses" were known as excellent mountain horses.
To understand this myth in context: I preferred to keep the original language Dongbas, far removed from our Western language and borrow after having translated sometimes partially, sometimes fully incorporating the following explanations to their author, namely Bai Gengsheng, vice president of the China Association of folk artists. His work focuses on literature and the arts Nakhi. It is one of the leading specialists in ethnic minority Nakhi to publish his works in translation. His most recent books on the symbolism of Dongba Mythology (1998), a study of Dongba Mythology (1999), and Nakhi Color Culture (2001). Here's a summary, of course partial, which appear much longer for many of you! Do not be surprised if sometimes you find a series of numbers and letters associated with vernacular names, they are interpretable only by a few linguists Dongba! I have not thought it necessary to remove them. Thank you for your understanding!
"The belief of the origin of the Tiger is popular in the family of Tibeto-Burman languages. In recent years, academic circles at home and abroad have been discovered among the Yi, Hani, and Lisu. However, the belief of the origin of tiger among Nakhi 1, one of the most important families of Tibeto-Burman languages, is still largely unknown, a fact that hinders our general understanding considering the language whole. To fill this gap, the author will try to sort out the bottom of the culture Nakhi, the myth of the tiger and provide a broad perspective for the Tibeto-Burman, or even China. The origin of the tiger is a ritual chant during rites "value the achievements" and other songs that interpret Dongba another myth to absorb and appropriate the power of the Tiger. This ritual song explains the ancestry of the Tiger, his birth and appearance, origin, and its power. Through the existing translation of this text in Mandarin and English, French and now, that looks like this song, after taking into account the new translation own language this vernacular culture very different from the more contemporary language of vehicular southwest China:
How should we interpret "The Origin of the Tiger"? I think this work is primarily up to the worship of the tiger by Nakhi. With its supernatural themes and animated formulation, The Origin of the Tiger expresses graphically both Nakhi belief in their origin and strong aesthetic sensibility. It represents the objects of worship which fully absorbed the spiritual beliefs of people, even at a totem. Therefore, the tiger is perfect inside and outside, in appearance and in substance, it is full of the dignity they are dead or alive. The genealogy of the tiger is noble: the ancestor of his father's side is blue dragon in the sky, and the ancestor of his mother's side is bald cat. The elements of the fleshy body of the tiger are sacred head, skin, lungs, liver, bones, flesh, breath, blood, heart, eyes, voice, claws and ears are all provided by nature, which allows it to absorb essential spiritual properties of the sky and the earth and the sun and the moon. The shape of the tiger is beautiful: her side, face, ears, head, back, back, waist, back parts, legs, tail and the area around her eyes are just filled with beautiful stripes and solemn. It can either give people the longevity or kill his enemy, he can either open the heavens and the earth, or compete with the sun and the moon to see who is more clear, it can give people the wisdom and strength, it can give people the beauty and richness or use of ritualistic magic talisman for the conquest of ghosts. Even after his death, the skin of the tiger will be the god who has the famous and the man who has a hero. These descriptions, The Origin of the Tiger were an ordinary animal into an object of worship with the perfection and endless power, and in harmony with the cult Nakhi tiger in Nakhi religion, language, folklore and art. What constitutes such a cult? It cannot be explained by reference to Nakhi view of nature, their ethics and their sense of self-understanding. Animal worship reflects the fact that the relationship between animals and humans is a fundamental relationship between nature and humanity. The man not only leads daily interactions with the animal world, but also to use it as the main staple food for subsistence. The man meets his needs fat, protein and fiber hunting and fishing and the domestication of animals. In fact, three animals: Shu He and May, each became an ancestor of the four major tribes Nakhi to antiquity. Of all the mountain animals, the tiger is the king because he is great in the body, fast moving, fierce and powerful by nature. Its existence is not only an influence on other animals, but also threatens human life. Therefore, ancestry Nakhi love the unique dignity and ferocity, as well as its superiority in body building, the fear is at the heart of their worship tiger. As the clan gradually becomes aware of their collective identity, its members want to trace the origin of a powerful clan in Genesis, so the cult tiger has reached the level of totemism. People began to see the tiger as a symbol of their tribes or clans, an icon to distinguish themselves from other communities. The Nakhi have many totems, such as yaks, bears, golden turtles, goats, dogs, and played a related role alongside Tiger. This is not surprising because the Nakhi is a community composed of many sub-groups who practice totemism. These animals worshiped among Nakhi and it involved two specific beliefs: first, the elements of the universe create the totemic animal or the universe is created from the animal, and, secondly, the totem belongs to the family clan. Totem animals are used to create the universe by changes in their body. For example, writing Dongba Chong Bantu describes the process of transformation of the yak in the universe. After the yak was killed and his head became the sky, his skin became earth, His lungs became the sun, His liver became the moon, his bowels roads, His bones are stone, His flesh is become the floor, his blood became water Its sides have become stone, his tail became trees, His wool has become the grass. His head points north, his tail to the south. Not only the yak, but also the golden turtle transformed in this way, with the only exception being that it turned into five elements Chong Bantu (ts'o 31mbÈr33t'v33): a Nakhi epic that describes the origin of the universe and humanity: metal, wood, fire, water and earth. Five directions and a standard that seems to come from the assimilation myth abroad. In Lamumengtu this transforming principle was reversed to work on human figures. It is said that after the human figure was formed, the sun gave her lungs, liver, bone moon stone, ground meat, blood water, the eyes of the god Pan, god head and feet dong, hands Sai god, the god Chan teeth, and heart Heng god, giving body and soul to the lifeless figure of wood, allowing it to return to the ancestral world. Thus, how the human body acquired soul and flesh reflects how the yak is transformed into the universe, the only difference being the direction of transformation. The origin of Tiger, as Lamumengtu, adopted the theme of combining all the elements. It is said that the tiger head from the sky, his skin of the earth, the moon of his lungs, bones stones, his flesh the soil, the wind, the blood from the water, and ears of the jackal. Chong Bantu Lamumengtu and The Origin of Tiger all employ a series of transformations, regardless of the type or combination, appropriate adjustments and changes depending on whether the hero is the yak, the tiger, the human being, no matter. For example, the transformation of a common relationship between the sun and the lungs, the liver and the moon, stone and bone, blood and water, soil and the flesh of the earth and of the skin, eyes and the stars, the wind and breath, road and bowels, and so on are fairly stable, with the exception that the yak Chong Bantu includes road and intestines, rock and sides, the shaft and the tail, and the grass and wool, while the tiger in origin Tiger has the sun and the eyes, iron and heart, blue dragon and the voice, the eagle and the claws, white yak and gallbladder, the jackal and the ear, and the wind and breath. These transformations are all based on two principles of similarity in appearance and nature. For example, tiger ears resemble those of jackal and bold tiger is similar to yak years. Unlike Chong Bantu, both the origin and Tiger Lamumengtu imaging all the natural elements turning into tiger or human figures. These two works, especially Lamumengtu, was born at a time far removed from that of Chong Bantu. The difference is significant: Bantu Chong appeared in both poles, while Lamumengtu and The Origin of the Tiger came into De Bibaoguasong (~ py11p'a11kua55 SU11) also resulted in the recording of the White Bat's getting the Scripture, Nakhi a myth about the origin of divination. Lamumengtu (la33mu33mM33t'v33): a Nakhi Dongba Scripture read the rites for the redemption of lost souls, which includes mythological pieces. Be the period of ancestor worship. The two do, however, preserve some totemic traces of the past. Totems as Nakhi universe, transformers, integrators or any elements of the cosmos, possess supernatural distinctions spiritual importance and grandeur of appearance, as well as the uniqueness of origin. Without these features, the yak, the tiger, and the sheep would not have become totems that could lead to feelings of fear in the heart of Nakhi ancestors. The totemic animals most often belong to the genealogy of a clan and serve human ancestors at large. It is the same with Tiger. In Chongbanchongsha (ts'o11bÈr33ts'o11sa55), there are detailed as to the origin of man and his genealogy that were subsequently used by Nakhi leaders and included in the genealogy of the famous family Mu descriptions Shu. In this very long genealogy, Cao gu gu shi tian neng to hai hai xian gu, the sky gave birth to the human egg and the earth, he hatched, then it is heated, became dew, and fell in From sea hai Xian Xian Xian bi jiao gu, in the genealogy of the birth of the animals, it is said, among which the tiger appears first, followed by tian ("horse"), frozen ("goat") yang ("sheep"), jiao ("horse"), and so on. It is only two Xian Cao that the genealogy of human origins is unfolded. Conjecture based on the characteristics of genealogy, which consists of the Tibeto-Burman family name system, we can say hi xian xian cao is the father of the human ancestor li cao wei wei xian (also called Chongrenlien). Of course, another view would say that the ancestor of man appeared at Tian Xian cong cong. However, the tiger (a) is considered the oldest animal ever appeared very close to the ancestors of man. In his great work, pictograms Nakhi Dictionary (1981), Fang Guoyu reveals that there are words saying that "the tiger is the ancestor of man" in the Nakhi folk. The relationship between man and tiger can be proved in the Bantu Chong. In this work, the human ancestor Chen hongbaobai'ming (Ts'e55ho11bu33be11mi55) was originally a celestial maiden, whose parents were celestial gods, called Zilaoapu (dzI331a11a31p'v33) or zu Zilaoa (DzI331a11a31 dzI33). Here Lao is the same as the genealogy of the Official Mu Family and origin of the Tiger, the two means "tiger". The pictograms Lao zi and zi Lao was one zu like a tiger. If man does not see the tiger as an ancestor, such symbols are sound-meaning correspondence which would be inexplicable. Because of the symbiotic relationship between man and tiger, old people have Nakhi widely practiced custom of using "tiger" as a surname. For example, the head of Zuosuo Yanyuan, Sichuan was the Nari, a subgroup of Nakhi. He called himself The, meaning tiger.30. Not only the head of Zuosuo, but also the head of Zhongsuo was known as Tiger (la). For example, during the reign of Hongwu of the Ming Dynasty, Lawu was appointed head of a thousand households. La Ruilin, who took office during the reign of Kangxi Qing Dynasty in The Chengjie, who was murdered by the owners of slaves Yi in the 1940s, and whose The Junrong, The Yongzhong, The Tingxiang, The 30 "Before the liberation, the hereditary chief of Zuosuo and 480 households Nari under his government were known as La [" tiger "]" (Guo and 1996:210). Yinghan, The Wenqing, The Bangzuo and The Shutong, all used the same name (see Guo and He, 1996) 0.31 Again, among the four former sub-branches of Nakhi that the hereditary chief of the Mu family of Lijinag Yuiinan belonged to the sub-branch Ye generally consider their first ancestor being born tiger called Yebeyela (jÈ11pM55jÈ11la33) (Guo and 1996.) In the case of Lijiang Fu, there is even a legend about to a man transformed into a tiger (Guanxu Reign). "It is said that in the early years Yunan Dynasty Baishali moududi was brave and determined by the nature Whenever there was an injustice, he lay on the huge rock transformed into a second, screaming and jumping, leaving marks on the rock, which can be identified even today "(ibid.: 443). Because humans and tigers depart from common ancestors, the origin of the Tiger said the human ancestor Congren Pandi has befriended the tiger and the tiger took his body to his ancestry burial after his death. Here, the author emphasized the similarity of the ancestor of man and tiger. However, since the origin of the Tiger is not the first version of the tiger myth, history adopted the plot in which Taomabenli (Te a55ma33pM33lM33), the hunter killed the tiger. Some might doubt that the tiger is a totem ancestor Nakhi for a people, why kill their own totem? However, in Asia, America and Africa, many people are used to kill and eat their totem, believing that this practice will absorb the power of totems "and give them lifelong protection. The same idea is at work when people dress in tiger skins, hoping gleans their magic power. For example, although the Ewenkis regarding the bear as their totem China, they do not hesitate to shoot. However, held a ceremony of their victim, shouting at the top of their voices, as if they had lost a parent. These bear hunters will not be convicted of murder, on the contrary, they are considered heroes. Whether an adult can become a true hunter depends largely on its ability hunting large game, such as bears and tigers (see Zhu 1999). Originally Tiger says that the skin of vital tiger was divided into 99 parts and assigned to many gods, the ancestors of man, and ritualistic, which killed and conquered their enemies, making contributions to society and to gain an international reputation in this case, "99" is only an estimate figure, the Nakhi emphasizes yang (odd ) and "99" means multiplicity. The important step here is the division of the tiger skin. Which cultural significance dividing tiger skin can be and what should it target? 31 Among the Nari Nakhi in Ningliang County of Yunnan "the hereditary chief in Yongning takes the tiger as its root ancestor and forbids people to kill him" (ibid.). First, it reflects an ancient custom hunting Nakhi. In the first time, Nakhi hunters met the old rule of "everyone on site should have a piece," when they bring the game, they would share a song with anyone they met on road, in addition to sharing equally among themselves share. If they do not have this custom, they believed they would not bag a game later. It reflects a common understanding of the distribution. According to this agreement he was a great shame to have anything in private, collective ownership was the most honored. Divide the tiger skin also means divide its power and strength, which is magic for many. Since the tiger is not a personal totem and belongs to all members of the clan, enjoying the protection of the tiger is a collective right. Due to the influence of the theory of the immortality of the soul, people believe that the soul of tiger and power inhabit every piece of his skin. Accordingly, as the Ewenkis would like to share in their clan meat they had killed the bear, sharing tiger skin meant collectively distribute the totem magic and kindness. To share the tiger skin is no doubt in the original Tiger. However, according to other peoples and mythology, its direct purpose is probably to have a coat from the skin of a tiger. Wearing a tiger skin embodies the history of the symbiosis between man and tiger. This is also the direction of change, we "read" in mythology Nakhi. For example, the warrior god, Youma, whose egg was hatched by the tiger, is a tiger's head, fur, and fierce power (He Z. 1963). In mythology Nakhi not only the tiger, but also of gods and monsters, after processing in some animals, to develop the corresponding inclinations, abilities and functions. According to the War between the Dong Shu (du11æ11sv31æ11) (Z. 1964b) and other accounts, the mythological ancestor Nakhi Mili Dongzhu once led his tribe against the tribe of Shu. Nine warriors were all wearing tiger skins (He considers 1984). In the Bantu and account Nakhi ancestors "high for a tiger skin Chong was represented graphically when asked Chongrenlien Zilao apu, who lives in heaven, milking a tigress, he traveled in the high mountains and entered the den tigress "wearing the skin of a bear disguise he later returned successfully to the milk of a tigress." In doing so, he beat Zilao drawings APU to get rid of him. Moreover, after marrying the celestial girl baobaiming Chenhong, he returned triumphantly to the earthly world wearing a tiger skin, after which he built a beautiful home and gave birth to the ancestors of the three peoples: Tibetan, Nakhi, and Bai (S. He 1987). It is said that Gao laiqiu ancestor of the four ancient tribes Nakhi Ye, Shu, and in May he was also a great hero who wore a tiger skin. As Lévy-Bruhl was observed (1986), when the heroes of mythology Nakhi Nakhi TIGER wearing tiger skins, two tigers and men become more powerful than they would have been without the other. Traces of worship Tiger While the origin of the Tiger clearly shows the Nakhis respect for the tiger, traces of worship and appears in their own language, place names, political organizations and medicines. Investigating these aspects of Nakhi culture, we can deepen our understanding of the nature of tiger and its worship Origin of the Tiger.
Language is the most stable element in an ethnic culture. Although the lexicon may be changed, this happens more slowly than economic developments and changes in social institutions. Basic vocabulary in a language has a high stability, and can retain information in an ancient culture longer than the inscriptions on the stones and marble columns copper. Regarding the worship Tiger is concerned; language Nakhi preserved a rich variety of references. For example, in the language Nakhi "healthy" is "the" (1a31la11), which literally means "tiger," a loose translation would be "strong like a tiger." This example shows that the tiger symbolizes health and strength according to ancient aesthetic Nakhi: state a healthy person is considered equivalent to that of a tiger another example is provided by a Nakhi saying, "In the beginning there was not wise and all. Sages taught by the tiger. "This proverb reveals how regarding Nakhi ancestors" for the tiger had increased the level of biology in the arena of spiritual matters, mental and moral level of consideration expressed in the Origin of the Tiger. Similar phrases revealed in the speech are Nakhi mei shi gan shi (la31sI33gæ11mÈ33sM33) jiu jing and the products (dzi33dziÈ11la33lÈr33dy11.) The first, which means "the tiger lose its prowess even after death" expresses praise and respect for the tiger, whose soul and power to survive death. latter, translated as "the fierce tiger roaring in the human world," is the wonderful landscape where man and Tiger live together .
In populated areas Nakhi are many places named after the tiger, including mountains, rivers, regions and individual villages. Evidence that the cult of the tiger is present everywhere. Mountains and rivers named after the tiger include Lancang Hutiao Xia and Lapu. Where the Lancang River meets Hengduanshan Mountains, there are many people Nakhi. Some names: see the movements of the tiger. "Lancang" is from the la33ts'o33 Nakhi, which means "tiger leaps" for where the Lancang River rushes through the valley are quite narrow expands to a tiger to jump over. Jinshajiang the valley between the Yulong Snow-capped Mountain in Lijiang and the Haba Snow Mountain in Zhongdian, Yunnan is known as Tiger-Jump or Lancang Valley ge (la33ts'o33ko11), due to the narrow river that runs through and small river island called Tiger-Rock Jump (La33ts'o33lv33). It is said that in the last crossing the river to the Tigers with the Tiger-Jump Rock. In addition, in the county of Yunnan Weixi there is a river called Lapu (1a33p'v33). According to the names of Weixi Lisu Autonomous County of the province Yiinnan (Weixi Lisu County 1987), lapu is a word that means Nakhi "lair of the tiger." Many other places have names incorporating the word for tiger Nakhi. Homeland of original tirbe Nari in Yanyuan County Sichuan is called Nakhi "Latuo" (la33t'a55), Lugu lake side, it is called "Latuo hai" (1a33t'a55hM55) in Nakhi. Again, the syllable in Latuo . means "Tiger" During the Tang Dynasty, the area of Yongning County Ninglang Yuiman was called Tanlan or Santanlan It is possible that Tanlan:. This is a mistake Bluff, while Bluff could be transcription in latão Nakhi language at that time. Moreover, during the Ming Dynasty the Lancang Guard was established in Yongsheng County of Yunnan, where Yonghshen was ruled by the Nakhi Chief Nakhi Mu family and continued to live. Lancang is a word that means Nakhi "breaks Tiger." In Lijiang Ninglang and Yunnan, there are plenty of nearby named after the tiger, for example, the name of the county is Lashi Nakhi Lashi (La33sI55) , which means "new Tiger" name Baoshan County is Nakhi Lab (La33pÈ11), which means "leaping tiger" the south end of the lake is called Baisha Ba (la33k'o55) in Nakhi, which means "kill tiger. " It needs to be noted that the name of Shigu Nakhi, Laba (la33ba11), has nothing to do with love Tiger because laba comes from the Tibetan word luopo (lo11p'o11), a name given to this region by Tibetans during the Tang Dynasty. Luopo Translated into Chinese in Tibetan as "Shenchuan" ("sacred river"), which is exactly the same name given to the Jinsha River in the Tang Shu (Proceedings of the Tang Dynasty). Villages named after the tiger are widespread. For example, there are two places where Nakhi live in Muli County Sichuan: one is the Laoluo (la331o11) or town means "the place where the tiger visited" Eya in the township and the other is Nabu (na55pv55) village of the township Wuxiang. nabu Here is a modified form of labu (la33bv33), which means "the place visited the tiger." The village's name Laluge Nakhi (La33lo55kv33) Township Tuoding means "village visited Tiger" (Deqin County 1986) There are six villages Nakhi in Zhongdian County Yunnan with the word for tiger in their names. Lake (la33k 'O55) Village or "the place where the tiger was killed" by Shangjiang township; Lazhigu (1a33dzI11kv33) Village or "the place the common tiger" of Shangjiang township; Lalaixi (la33lÈr11xi11) - "where the Tiger roars, "township Shangjiang; Lariluo (la33zI33lo11) village" wooded valleys of the Tiger "Jinjiang Township and Labiaozhi (La33bM11dI33) village" place of slaughter tiger "of Hutiaoxia township, where it is said that people hunted and shared a tiger Other examples are: Laha (la33ha33) Village or "the place where the tiger rests" Yongchun township; Lalongge (la33lo55ko11) village "the place the tiger comes and goes" Yongchun township, and Lari (la33zI33) village "village path tiger" Yongchun township (Weixi Lisu County 1987). The names of the villages concerned for Tiger contained in the agreement signed by the governments of Yunnan and Sichuan with the following local governments and Yongning Lijiang Lawuwa (la33u33uo33) Laruowa (la33zI11uo33) Laerwu (la33?Èr11uo33) Lakewa (la33k'o33uo33 ) Laziwa (la33tsI33uo33) and Lamiewa (la33mi11uo33) (Guo and He, 1996). Nari two villages in the county of Sichuan Yanyuan are named after tigers: Nawa (Na55uo33) Yanhai township where nawa is the same as lawa, which means "the town that tigers" and Nakua (na55k'ua33 ), which is the same Nakua lakua (1a33k'ua33), which means "tiger" (fingerprints Yanyuan County 1985). Villages named after the tiger are more prevalent in Lijiang County, Yunnan.'s in all the following names mean "Tiger" Laquwu (La33ts'y55uo33) (Wutai Village) Township Huangshan; Lamaojiu (La33ma55dzIÈ11) between Jinshan and cantons Qihe; Lazhemai (la33dzÈ11mæ33) in Canton and Lake Lashi (1a33k'o55) to southern end of Baisha Township. Regarding Laquwu town, it is said that once the hereditary chief of the Mu family Nakhi named villagers to raise a Laquwu tiger, but when the tiger escaped as a result of their neglect of the Mu family sought compensation. Therefore laquwu means "the village to pay back the Tiger" in Nakhi. After the escape of a tiger, the villagers rushed to search for it and finally found the animal Lamaojiu. After being expelled, the tiger ran the Qihecanton, went up the mountain to the town of South Lashi, was taken in the village of Lazhemai, and was killed on the lake, not far from the city. Therefore, Lamaojiu means "the place where the tiger was found escape"; lazhmai means "the place where the tiger was taken" and the lake means "the place where the tiger was killed." The same prevalence names tiger exists in the township Judian. It is said that the area around the Wuhouqing of Judian that used to be inhabited by tigers is called Lazhuluo (la33dzI33lo11) in Nakhi, which means "the place with lots of tigers.” Once a tiger down the valley on the banks of Jinshajiang River in search of food and was spotted by a hunter. Hunter he continued west of the valley, where it disappeared. Consequently, the place is called Lapigu (1a33p'i55kv33), or "the place where the tiger disappeared." After the disappearance of the tiger, the hunter continues his search on the valley. The place where he rediscovered and drew the tiger is called Lamogu (la33mæ33kv33), "the place where the tiger was taken." The platform significantly where the hunter dragged the tiger to kill, it is called Lakeluo (la33k'o55lo11), "the place where the tiger was killed" (Su, 1997). Tiger affected villages toponymns Lijiang in Yunnan are the following: Laru (la55sI33) Laru means "tiger cubs" in Baoshan Township, Laben (1a33be33), "village tigers" in the canton Daju; Layoudui (La33jÈ11dy11 ), "the place where the tiger was expelled" and Lasazhi (La33sa11dzI33), "the village where the tigers escaped in all directions." There is a village called Mulake (mu111a33k'o55) in the canton of Dadong, which means "the town that slaughters cattle and tigers. "We must surmise from these names there must be some inspiring stories behind them or particular beliefs. Nakhi In marriage customs, architecture, games, costumes, arts and other cultural activities, worship Tiger is expressed in great detail, for the folders on mythology tiger in domba Scriptures and thus forming a fascinating landscape Nakhi tiger culture. In the custom of marriage, the go-between is known as milabu (Mi331a33bu11), this which means "tiger holds a young girl in his mouth." According He Shicheng, the title comes from a story told by Gonta a Nakhi domba, who lives in the village Baidi Zhongdian County Yuiman 's (S. He, 1993): In ancient times, a father and son lived in a mountain village, they were so poor that the son could not marry at the right age One day a tiger came.. and asked: "What do you want to live?" The father replied: "We live by working for the owner in the village" The tiger then asked: "What kinds of jobs do you." The father replied: "All kinds of cut wood carry water. The three daughters of the owners are silk damask and we only carry the bag and eat food for dogs and pigs. "The tiger then asked the father:" Do you want me to find a wife for your son? "Hearing the father said," We are too poor for any girl to be ready to get married in our family. "Several days later, the eldest daughter of the owner was suddenly swept away to the father and son secretly Tiger told the daughter." Your family is far too rich and their families are too poor you would. better to stay put and a good woman. Otherwise, I'll eat you alive. "She was so frightened that she had to stay and live with them. She asked her husband to get the weaving machine and it worked every day without stopping. The husband was asked to sell the silk damask on the market. The family was getting better. One day, when the silk damask have been sold to the owner's family, the landlord asked, "Are these stolen goods" The son of poor family said: "My wife has woven them."? The other two girls looked landlord texture and found it was the same as their older sister work. The owner then asked how it was that the son had found a poor woman. He was forced to tell the truth and the owner was told that his long-term mercenary become his son-in! He had no choice but to acknowledge it. From that moment, the poor father and son lived a better and better life. As it was the tiger put husband and wife, people call the go-between milabu. According to traditional architectural styles, the Nakhi set up a stone on each side of the grid, called stone Dong32 and SE33, respectively, they are also known as the stone yin-yang and the god of stone, and tigerstone and yak-stone. Guard’s grid rollers photo domba represent Dong riding on a tiger, in a yak. Dong is male and belongs to yang, while women are in and belongs to yin. Therefore, the three names agree with the other. The main function of guardian door is, of course, to protect the household. In traditional games, children everywhere would Nakhi the game "a tigress protecting her cubs" (la33me33la33zo33gæ33). It goes like this: a boy will play the tigress and stand before a group of people are playing the Cubs and stand behind him in line. When the game starts, another boy plays "wild beast" and try to avoid the tigress to capture her cubs, while the tigress will do everything possible to protect them. The cubs follow tigresse32 Dong (DU11), whose full name is Milidong (mM33lM55du11), is a god-yang in Nakhi domba religion, the gate keeper male. 33 SE (SE 11), whose full name is Milise (33lM55se11 mM), is a yin-god in the Nakhi domba religion, the gate keeper female. The order, in case they should fall into the hands of the evil beast. Once a bear is caught, the game ends and another begins. As for clothes, it is said that the ancestors Nakhi loved wearing tiger skins. In recent years, however, the tiger population has declined rapidly and they are now on the verge of extinction. As a result, the supply of tiger skins has declined, making it impossible for officials and commoners as well to wear. The skins provided by the ancestors now serve primarily as symbols of power and status, and are only displayed on special occasions. For example, among the Nari Youngning Nakhi Ninglang County in Yunnan, on every first and second day of the new moon year, the head will reveal tiger skin normally kept in view, draping it over a chair the honor of his ancestors and for subjects, commoners and slaves’ domestic honor. The third day he will put the skin in place. Regarding the popular arts, many stories are the tiger conquer a beast. There are also many other legends, stories, parables, for example, "The history of the tiger stripes and leopard drawing on each other" describes the origin marks on the bodies of the animals 'L' story of the twelve animals "(Li 1984) explains why the mouse and ox outperform the tiger:" A hunter in name only "(The Judge 1984) speaks of tiger-hunting" story about Tiger-Leaping Valley "( ibid.) reveals how the name of the place was made, and "The Rabbit and the Tiger" (Nationality Studies 1978) tells the rabbit competition with the tiger in the arena of wisdom and courage. Course, these folk traditions the representations of the tiger are quite complex, at different times of its representation sober myths, language, customs, the marriage of architecture, costumes and games. Presumably these folk stories appeared after the state the man stood up and the tiger had separated from the gods and ancestors, losing its former dignity.
Regarding social organization is concerned, the tiger is used to characterize political institutions, as seen in military institutions Wei and Suo, set up by the central government during the Ming Dynasty in the Yanyuan County Sichuan. Among the five and four Suo If then set up 34 heads of Nari zuo (left), you (right), 34 zhong Five Suo and four SI: administrative units Nakhi (Moso) areas of Sichuan, created in the Qing Dynasty. If the four include Guabie Pacification Commission, the Pacification Commission Muli, pacification Gubaishu Commission and the Office of the Chief Mala. The five Suo see battalion Zuosuo (Middle), qian (front) and hou (back) to identify with the tiger. It is said that the suo five from the same tiger, becoming its claws, teeth, the head, tail and scratches. In 1983, the author of this paper was there in person while doing fieldwork. According to a local ritual, the old Moso and cultural heritage "down" in Qiansuo, Housuo, Zhongsuo, Zuosuo, Yousuo, Yongning, Langqiu, Lijiang and Yezhi were compared with a tiger and her nine grandchildren, embodied by the Heads premises of each group. It is difficult at present to specify the organization of the leaders in Lijiang Nakhi military democracy during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. However, they have always been popularly known as having adopted a system of "Nine-and Eighteen-Young tigers Tigers." The Mu family ranked at the top of the power structure, with nine civil and military departments under it, each with two sub-departments, making eighteen departments subset of services together.35 In a word, the tiger is a symbol of political power and its institutionalization.
The Nakhi have a long history of relying on tiger skins and bones for medical treatment. Use of the skin as a mattress is such use. Asleep on it evokes the same totemic identification that was mentioned, also has a medical efficacy of persons believe that tiger skin mat ward off the cold-related diseases. Nakhi also drink the house tiger bone wine in abundance in order to have bright eyes and a strong brain, treating yin deficiency and strengthen the body. We can see from the above aspects of the culture Nakhi tiger worship permeates the material, spiritual and social realities. Its variety, importance, and the story betray the fact that the tiger is not a common animal, but a special totem. Without such grounding in belief systems Nakhi, mythological works like the original Tiger could never come into being.
Origins and development of the cult Tiger.
The commander of the family, the battalion commander Zhongsuo for the family, the battalion commander for Ba Zuosuo family, company commander Qiansuo for the family A, and the company commander Housuo for Bai family. 35 In biological taxonomy, tiger and cat are from the same family, which is why; in The Origin of the matriarchal ancestor Tiger Tiger is considered a white cat face. There are several factors that contribute to a system of ethnic beliefs. These factors, however, that some play a major role. The causes Nakhi Tiger worship, we can point to the traditions environmental, historical and ancient Nakhi use of animal resources. In more ancient times, humans lived a variety of environments: land of hills, plains, steppes, desert oasis, and islands. Different living conditions have influenced the development of different cultural models, "culture" defined here as a product of the adaptation of humanity to nature and the establishment of a special relationship with him. The Nakhi and its four sub-groups live in the mountainous regions, with the exception of a small percentage of those who live in the plains. Even residents of single-build their villages at the foot of a mountain in order to make plowing, grazing, and hunting easier. The majority of the Nakhi have spread in the Hengduan Mountains intersections Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Here, at an altitude of several thousand meters above sea level, the mountains are high and dense forests, with a fullness of rivers and streams. This generous land of flora and fauna are abundant with a wide variety of species and form particular mountain ecology. This ecological enclave of the tiger is "the king of all animals" and "master of the mountain." Like the greatest ruler of the mountainous country, it has a wide range of exercise capacity. It is only in the deep mountains and steep ridges can them carefully proof of his courage and power. He roared and leaped there at will. After Nakhi ancestors entered the mountains, they established a complicated relationship with the tiger, with which they have been competing for control of biological resources. As animists, humans naturally consider the conquest of the tiger as the highest glory. People have developed a rich culture, tiger, materially and spiritually, recognizing his inclinations, the creation of tools to conquer, inventing methods to catch it, make aesthetic evaluations, and a variety of creation myths that subject. Tiger totem worship and the tiger are the essence of such a cultural activity. Historically, beliefs about the tiger were a common part of the ancient culture and traditions survive in the present. According to historical records, the Fuxi36 Chinese deity was born in the West Qiang, and image, with a human head and body of a snake, appeared on a large number of Han 36 Fuxi is the deity who created the Eight Diagrams and supervises craft fishing nets and magical instruments, music composition, marriage customs, the art of hunting, and so on. Bricks dynasty. Fuxi could also have the body of a tiger, a logical alternative to the ethnic groups of the ancient Qiang family worshiped as the ancestor tiger god, and totem. Yi, Lisu, Hani, Jino, Lahu, Tujia and Bai, all descended from the Qiang, are still alive by keeping traces of various tiger worship and customs. These traces are particularly visible among the Yi and Lisu, which belong to the same language group that Nakhi. Yi called Luoluo (lo33 lo33) ("Tiger"), which suggests that the ancestors of Yi believed that the tiger was their ancestor. As Nakhi epic, The Origin of Tiger, Mei Yi Ge epic (Me11ko33) represents the tiger as a totem that has transformed the universe. Mei Ge in the tiger's head became to heaven after his death, his skin became the earth, his left eye became the sun, his right eye became the moon became his side the road, and its size has become the cornerstone, his blood became water, his straight hair became trees, his hair became soft grass, her teeth are stars, his bowels rivers, its oil has become vapor, his body hair has become rice plants; her bone has become the gold its small bones became silver; his lung became copper his liver became the iron, its membranes became tin, his shoulders became ponds, his arms became head north, and lice on his body became large buffalo (CIFY 1959). This series of cosmological transformations is similar to the origin of the Tigris, with the sole exception being that the description of the Ge Mei is more detailed. Moreover, mountains, rivers, villages and regions are named after the tiger in the Yi areas and Lisu. The Lisu have clans with the name of the tiger, even today. We can see that the Nakhi, Yi, Lisu and all who are descendants of the Qiang, share the same cultural background. Of course, these groups are separated from their cultures tiger developed along different lines, with different characteristics. The origin of the Tiger also differs Ge Mei because at the time of his first record, the company has already made the transition Nakhi of totem worship of ancestors and hero worship (He Z. 1963). However, no matter how the two companies diverged in their evolution of tiger worship their common primordial "birthmark" is indelible. The Nakhi old used to live as nomads of the steppe north-west, where they relied heavily on animals living in much of the domestication, hunting, and nomadism. Animal resources were used for transportation, food, heat, and even tribal warfare and religious rites. This mode of existence and production continued without fundamental change, even after Nakhi ancestors had been settled in the hills of southwest and mountains from a sometime. Many sources have clearly shown that until the early twentieth century, life Nakhi was supported in part by Agriculture and partly by breeding. However, for Self Nakhi relied mainly on animals rather than on earth and plants. Their aesthetic emphasis was also put animal, as is evident from the language Nakhi. For example, "delicacy" is e (?M33) in Nakhi, which literally means "beef", "can" is ruo (zua33), which literally means "horse", "beauty" is zhi (dzI33), literally meaning "Leopard" and "goodness" is gu (GV33), which literally means "bear." Since the tiger is the king of all animals, he became the most prominent in the aesthetic animal. Among the Chinese minority groups, wolf plays a major role in the meadows, the dog in the mountainous regions, the tiger in the mountains, the yak in the snow land, and the dragon and the serpent in aquatic places. All have close ties with the activities geographically determined each ethnic group. The wolf is a key factor in maintaining grassland ecology and affects livestock. In mountainous areas, the dog plays an important role in hunting. In mountainous areas, the tiger is at once a wild animal to be submitted and a power source. The yak is essential for the economy and the lives of the people further north because of its high construction, resistance to cold, more wool, milk quality, powerful horns, and delicious meat and fat. In aquatic venues material life snake links and spiritual universe, because it overlooks the water, decide the fate of planting and fishing. Thus, the cultural centers of the tiger Nakhi loved and are represented by the tiger mythology. This culture has strong links with other cultures Tiger Tibeto-Burman groups at the same time; however, it retains its own characteristics. Understanding the relationship between the tiger and Nakhi culture and learn more fully the dynamics of the spiritual universe Nakhi ensure a deeper and more accurate understanding of the people, if the focus is on nature, war or peace .